Selected Bibliography

  Dale Cockrell. Demons of Disorder: Early Blackface Minstrels and Their World. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997. (This study is a social history of the origins of minstrelsy, and the class and culture of its audiences.)

  Richard Crawford. America's Musical Life: A History. New York: W. W. Norton, 2001. (Chapters 12 "Home Music Making and the Publishing Industry," and 13 "From Ramparts to Romance: Parlor Songs, 1800-1865," are especially relevant.)

  Dena Epstein. Sinful Tunes and Spirituals: Black Folk Music to the Civil War. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1977. (The best overview of antebellum African-American music.)

  Hymn Book of the Methodist Protestant Church, Compiled by authority of the General Conference, Fourteenth Edition. Baltimore: Methodist Protestant Church, 1852.

  Jon W. Finson. The Voices That Are Gone: Themes in Nineteenth-Century American Popular Song. New York: Oxford University Press, 1994.

  June Hadden Hobbs. "Hymns as the Cultural Property of Nineteenth-Century Women," in "I Sing for I Cannot Be Silent": The Feminization of American Hymnody, 1870-1920: 34-69. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1997.

  Richard J. Mouw and Mark A. Noll, eds. Wonderful Words of Life: Hymns in American Protestant History and Theology. Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 2004. (Particularly relevant is Chapter 2 by Esther Rothenbusch Crookshank, "'We're Marching to Zion': Isaac Watts in Early America.")

  Paul Oliver, "African-American Spiritual," section II.3 of article "Spiritual," in Grove Music Online. Oxford University Press, 2007:

  Jewel A. Smith, "Educational Philosophy in Nineteenth-Century American Female Seminaries: Music and the 'Ideal of Real Womanhood,'" presented at Society for American Music, Twenty-Ninth Annual Conference, Tempe, AZ, March 10, 2003

  Jon Michael Spencer. Black Hymnody: A Hymnological History of the African-American Church. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1992. (This study traces the history of hymnbooks in several Christian church denominations.)

  David W. Stowe. How Sweet the Sound: Music in the Spiritual Lives of Americans. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2004.